What is RDBMS? | Concepts of RDBMS | Introduction of RDBMS

Relation in the RDBMS is the deposit of tuples having similar characteristics. A relation in RDBMS means the set of the entities and data contained in them. The entities are different instances and their relation is organized in different rows and columns in the data table.  The related information is of identical domains and constraints. By deleting old data and by inserting new data, relations are altered in the database model.

An RDBMS is a type of database management system (DBMS) that stores data in a row-based table structure which connects related data elements. An RDBMS includes functions that maintain the security, accuracy, integrity and consistency of the data. This is different than the file storage used in a DBMS.

How it works

Data is represented in terms of tuples (rows) in RDBMS. Relational database is most commonly used database. It contains number of tables and each table has its own primary key. Due to a collection of organized set of tables, data can be accessed easily in RDBMS.

Domain in RDBMS

The domain describes probable terms collected jointly that always have the same characteristics and also constraints. A domain can be involved in a feature but only if the feature is a factor of a particular set.

RDBMS Database

The association between different databases is called the relational database. Here all the data are related in terms of the tables they are stored in. The users will be able to access them. RDBMS database is different from that of DBMS.

The RDBMS speaks about relations between different entities present in the database. Normal Database assists only the tables while RDBS along with the tables tells their connections too. Normal databases give consistent methods but databases of RDBMS do not offer any methodologies but instead give connections that connect one single object with another.

The stored database is called executable code. The database collects and saves data and that particular procedure is called the stored procedure. During this, the codes are also stored which are used for encapsulation, delete, etc. The programmers are able to add extensions of the syntaxes of SQL due to the applications of the APIs in the stored processes.

What is a table?

The data in an RDBMS is stored in database objects which are called as tables. This table is basically a collection of related data entries and it consists of numerous columns and rows. Remember, a table is the most common and simplest form of data storage in a relational database. The following program is an example of a CUSTOMERS table −

| ID | NAME     | AGE | ADDRESS   | SALARY   |
|  1 | Ramesh   |  32 | Ahmedabad |  2000.00 |
|  2 | Khilan   |  25 | Delhi     |  1500.00 |
|  3 | kaushik  |  23 | Kota      |  2000.00 |
|  4 | Chaitali |  25 | Mumbai    |  6500.00 |
|  5 | Hardik   |  27 | Bhopal    |  8500.00 |
|  6 | Komal    |  22 | MP        |  4500.00 |
|  7 | Muffy    |  24 | Indore    | 10000.00 |

What is a field?

Every table is broken up into smaller entities called fields. The fields in the CUSTOMERS table consist of ID, NAME, AGE, ADDRESS and SALARY. A field is a column in a table that is designed to maintain specific information about every record in the table.

What is a Record or a Row?

A record is also called as a row of data is each individual entry that exists in a table. For example, there are 7 records in the above CUSTOMERS table. Following is a single row of data or record in the CUSTOMERS table −

|  1 | Ramesh   |  32 | Ahmedabad |  2000.00 |

A record is a horizontal entity in a table.

What is a column?

A column is a vertical entity in a table that contains all information associated with a specific field in a table. For example, a column in the CUSTOMERS table is ADDRESS, which represents location description and would be as shown below −

| Ahmedabad |
| Delhi     |
| Kota      |
| Mumbai    |
| Bhopal    |
| MP        |
| Indore    |

What is a NULL value?

A NULL value in a table is a value in a field that appears to be blank, which means a field with a NULL value is a field with no value. It is very important to understand that a NULL value is different than a zero value or a field that contains spaces. A field with a NULL value is the one that has been left blank during a record creation.


Constraints are sort of limitations functional to the database. They make available the way to employ the trade logic and the regulations in the database. In the database, it can be applied in the type of confirming limits that verify the set of laws that the developer has missed. The constraint is also restricting the facts that can be saved in the relations. They are applied to verify the province’s performance and to keep it protected.

The Main Principles Of The RDBMS Model are:

  • Entity integrity: The entity integrity says that in a database, all the data should be organized having a single key. The uniqueness of all the data is maintained by this principle.
  • Referential integrity: Referential integrity means that in the database all table values stay true for all foreign keys.

RDBMS Operators

There are several relational operators that perform on the RDBMS.  They are:

  • Union operator mingles the rows of 2 relations and ignores the replacement. It also takes out the copied ones from the output.
  • The intersection operator gives a collection of rows that is identical to two relations.
  • The difference operator gives the result by having 2 relations and gives the difference of rows from the first that don’t exist in the second.
  • Cartesian product is done on two relations. It works as a cross join operator.

Primary and Foreign Keys

Primary key: 

The primary key finds out the similarity in the relationship. For the entire table, there is only one primary key. Every table has got a particular primary key that cannot be shared by other tables.

Foreign key: 

The foreign key is a key used for a different table of data which is referred by the primary key. There are many foreign keys for a single table. It depends on the primary key and its decision so as to refer those foreign keys to the table. Every foreign key can be shared and it speaks about the coordination among the data of different tables.

Index in RDBMS

For faster accessing of the data and their structure, the indexes are used. Combining all the characteristics makes it possible to find out the data faster and also allows similar data to be found very comfortably.

RDBMS Normalization

Normalization is a vital part of a relational model. Normal forms are the general form of normalization. It helps in dropping severance to boost the total data. It has various drawbacks as it boosts the difficulty and has various operating costs of giving out. It has a group of processes that removes the realm that is non-atomic and severance of information that saves data management and thrashing of data reliability.

There are 9 normalizations that are used inside the database. These are as follows:

  • First normal form: this table represents a relation of unique groups.
  • Second normal form: Is not practically charge on the division of any contender key.
  • Third normal form: every non-prime feature is non-transitively charged on every contender key
  • Elementary key normal form: This key dependency modifies the practical dependency in a table.
  • Boyce Codd normal form: “All non-trivial functional reliability is dependent on superkey”.
  • Fourth normal form: “All non-trivial multi-valued reliability is dependent on a superkey”.
  • Fifth normal form (5NF): “Every non-trivial join dependency is applied by the superkey
  • Domain/key normal form (DKNF): “All restrictions are logical outcomes of the domain limitations
  • Sixth normal form (6NF): no non-trivial join reliabilities at all”.

Data Abstraction

There are 3 stages of data generalization. And they are:

Physical level :

It is the least possible stage that explains how information is stored in the database.

Logical level :

It is the next senior stage in the ladder that gives the generalization. It tells what information is stored and also tells the connection among them.

View level :

It is the uppermost stage in the ladder that explains part of the whole database. It enables the consumer to view the database and do the inquiry.

RDBMS Extensions and Intensions

Extension :

Extension describes the number of tuples existing in a table at any time and it is completely dependent on time.

Intension :

Intension tells about the name, configuration, and limitations of the table and does not depend on time.

Data Independence in RDBMS

The freedom of the information stored inside any application is termed data independence. It is for the storage configuration and allows amending the representation of the data stored in the database. But is not able to modify the representations done in the supreme stage.

There are two kinds of data independence:

Physical data independence:

It enables the alteration to be completed in the physical point and never is going to have an effect on the logical part.

Logical data independence:

It enables the amendment to be completed at the logical part and also it affects the view level.


For watching the information, there is a virtual table of rows and columns this virtual table is called a view. It is saved in the data directory and displays the file. Since it is a virtual table and has no physical existence, it is related to the logical level.

E-R Model

The full form of this E-R model is the entity-relationship. This is a form of representing objects inside the database and the relationships between the different objects. The practical world also represents various entities and the relationship between those different entities


ACID stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and durability and it performs an imperative task in the database. The ACID features assist in controlling the accuracy of the information in the data center. The ACID features make the database easy to use. It enables the protected sharing of data among the tables. Without the ACID features, the data will be conflicting and also it will become imprecise.


For arranging and proper organizing of the information stored, we use cardinality. This arrangement tool is utilized in the entity-relationship diagrams representing relationships between different entities in the table. The cardinality is of different types and they are :

One to one:

This cardinality connects one single object with another single object.

One to many:

This cardinality connects one single object with many single objects.

Many to many:

This cardinality connects many single objects with many other single objects.

Many to one:

This cardinality connects many objects with one single object

RDBMS Advantages

  • Data is only stored once so multiple documentation changes are not required
  • Better safety measures
  • The table arrangement is straightforward and simple for database users to appreciate and use.
  • RDBMSs permit numerous database users to admittance a database concurrently.
  • RDBMS agree to the database manager to limit admission to certified users, and gift rights to entity users depending on the kinds of database work they do
  • RDBMSs offer admission to the database via a server daemon, a dedicated software program that responds to requirements on a set of connections, and enables database users to connect and make use of the database.
  • RDBMSs feature safeguarding supply database managers with tools to without difficulty preserve analysis, revamp and back up the data centers.
  • RDBMSs support SQL language.

The use of an RDBMS can be beneficial to most organizations; the systematic view of raw data helps companies better understand and execute the information while enhancing the decision-making process. The use of tables to store data also improves the security of information stored in the databases. Users are able to customize access and set barriers to limit the content that is made available. This feature makes the RDBMS particularly useful to companies in which the manager decides what data is provided to employees and customers.

Furthermore, RDBMSes make it easy to add new data to the system or alter existing tables while ensuring consistency with the previously available content.

Other advantages of the RDBMS include:

  • Flexibility — updating data is more efficient since the changes only need to be made in one place.
  • Maintenance — database administrators can easily maintain, control and update data in the database. Backups also become easier since automation tools included in the RDBMS automate these tasks.
  • Data structure — the table format used in RDBMSes is easy to understand and provides an organized and structural manner through which entries are matched by firing queries.

On the other hand, relational database management systems do not come without their disadvantages. For example, in order to implement an RDBMS, special software must be purchased. This introduces an additional cost for execution. Once the software is obtained, the setup process can be tedious since it requires millions of lines of content to be transferred into the RDBMS tables. This process may require the additional help of a programmer or a team of data entry specialists. Special attention must be paid to the data during entry to ensure sensitive information is not placed into the wrong hands.

Some other drawbacks of the RDBMS include the character limit placed on certain fields in the tables and the inability to fully understand new forms of data — such as complex numbers, designs and images.

Furthermore, while isolated databases can be created using an RDBMS, the process requires large chunks of information to be separated from each other. Connecting these large amounts of data to form the isolated database can be very complicated.

Uses of RDBMS

Relational database management systems are frequently used in disciplines such as manufacturing, human resources and banking. The system is also useful for airlines that need to store ticket service and passenger documentation information as well as universities maintaining student databases.

Some examples of specific systems that use RDBMS include IBM, Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft SQLServer and PostgreSQL.


In general, databases store sets of data that can be queried for use in other applications. A database management system supports the development, administration and use of database platforms.

An RDBMS is a type of database management system (DBMS) that stores data in a row-based table structure which connects related data elements. An RDBMS includes functions that maintain the security, accuracy, integrity and consistency of the data. This is different than the file storage used in a DBMS.

Other differences between database management systems and relational database management systems include:

  • Number of allowed users. While a DBMS can only accept one user at a time, an RDBMS can operate with multiple users.
  • Hardware and software requirements. A DBMS needs less software and hardware than an RDBMS.
  • Amount of data. RDBMSes can handle any amount of data, from small to large, while a DBMS can only manage small amounts.
  • Database structure. In a DBMS, data is kept in a hierarchical form, whereas an RDBMS utilizes a table where the headers are used as column names and the rows contain the corresponding values.
  • ACID implementation. DBMSes do not use the atomicity, consistency, isolation and durability (ACID) model for storing data. On the other hand, RDBMSes base the structure of their data on the ACID model to ensure consistency.
  • Distributed databases. While an RDBMS offers complete support for distributed databases, a DBMS will not provide support.
  • Types of programs managed. While an RDBMS helps manage the relationships between its incorporated tables of data, a DBMS focuses on maintaining databases that are present within the computer network and system hard disks.
  • Support of database normalization. An RDBMS can be normalized, but a DBMS cannot.
What is RDBMS? | Concepts of RDBMS | Introduction of RDBMS
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