MySQL Limit query is used to restrict the number of rows returns from the result set, rather than fetching the whole set in the MySQL database. The Limit clause works with the SELECT statement for returning the specified number of rows only. This query accepts only one or two arguments, and their values should be zero or any positive integer. It is essential in such a case when the table contains thousands of rows, or you want to return only the recently inserted data. In other words, if you are not interested in getting all the rows returned from the query, use the MySQL Limit clause with the SELECT statement. It improves the performance of the query and even stops having crashed the system when the table contains a large number of data. To get only the specified rows from the table, MySQL uses the LIMIT clause, whereas SQL uses the TOP clause, and Oracle uses the ROWNUM clause with the SELECT statement.
The following are the syntax of using Limit query in MySQL:
SELECT column_list FROM table_name LIMIT offset, count;
In the above syntax, we can see:
Column_list: It is the name of the column that you want to return.
Table_name: It is the name of the table that contains your column name.
Offset: It specifies the number of a row from which you want to return. The offset of the row starts from 0, not 1.
Count: It specifies the maximum number of rows you want to return.
The following visual representation explains it more clearly:
NOTE: If you specify only one argument with the Limit clause, MySQL assumes this to determine the maximum number of rows for returning output from the result set. In that case, Limit clause arguments, offset, and the count is equivalent.
LIMIT Clause with ORDER BY Clause
The user needs to use the Limit clause Without using Order By clause, you will get the result in an unspecified order. In that case, it is tough to know the query returns result from which rows. So, it is a good habit to use with a Limit clause for getting the rows in a specific order.
The following syntax can be used to get the result in a unique order:
SELECT column_list FROM table_name GROUP BY order_expression LIMIT offset, count;
MySQL Limit Examples
Let us create a sample table in the database that contains the following data and understand how Limit clause works in MySQL using various examples:
1. MySQL Limit to return highest or lowest rows
The following statement used to get the top five younger employees:
SELECT * FROM employees ORDER BY emp_age LIMIT 5;
This statement first sorts the employee age using Group By clause, and then the Limit clause returns the top-five result. After executing the above steps, we will get the following output:
2. MySQL Limit to get a range of rows using offset
Sometimes you want to get a result between the ranges of values. For example, you have a large number of rows to display data on applications, then divide it into pages, and each page contains a maximum of 10 rows in a table. In that case, you can use the following query to get a range of rows:
SELECT emp_id, emp_name, income FROM employees ORDER BY income DESC LIMIT 3,7;
This statement returns the rows starting from row number 3 and goes to a maximum of 7th rows. It also sorts the income of the employee in highest to lowest orders. Execute the query, and you will get the following output:
3. MySQL Limit with WHERE Clause
MySQL Limit can also be worked . It first checks the specified condition in the table and produces the rows that matched the condition. This query selects the first five employees whose age is greater than 30. Here, we also used the Order By clause to sort the employees in a descending order using their income.
SELECT emp_name, emp_age, income FROM employees WHERE emp_age>30 ORDER BY income DESC LIMIT 5;
After successful execution of the above statement, we will get the following output:
4. MySQL LIMIT to get the nth highest or lowest value
Sometimes we want to get the rows of nth highest or lowest value. In that case, we can use the following MySQL LIMIT clause to get the expected result:
SELECT column_list FROM table_name ORDER BY expression LIMIT n-1, 1;
In this syntax, the LIMIT n-1, 1 clause returns 1 row that starts at the row n. For example, the following query returns the employee information who has the second-highest income:
SELECT emp_name, city, income FROM employees ORDER BY income LIMIT 1, 1;
Executing the above statement, it will give the following query:
It is to be noted that the above query only works when your table does not contains two employees who have some income. In that case, we will use DENSE_RANK () to get a more accurate result.
Other Examples of Using MySQL LIMIT
Using MySQL LIMIT with JOINED TABLES
MYSQL LIMIT can also be used to LIMIT the no of records .
For example – Let’s fetch the department name using INNER JOIN and LIMIT the results to 5 records.
The query would LIMIT the results to 5 and return the first 5 records with emp_name and dept_name
- MySQL LIMIT with GROUP BY / ORDER BY
Let’s see an example using LIMIT with GROUP BY
We are extending the same query to department name and return the count of the first 2 departments.
Let’s sort the same query using ORDER BY to get the records of the top 2 departments sorted by count.
MySQL LIMIT With DISTINCT
LIMIT can also be used along with the DISTINCT clause. In this case, whenever the MySQL Engine finds the no of records to be returned, it stops further processing and returns the result set. In this case, we are using the DISTINCT clause to return employees with DISTINCT names.
Applications of LIMIT CLAUSE
LIMIT clause is used to reduce the IO/data over the network in cases where there are tables having millions of records and we are interested in displaying only a small number of records.
For example: Consider Google search to be a SELECT QUERY. So on a web browser, you just see 15-20 results and see the rest of the results on the next pages. If it were to load all thousands of results during the single execution, then it would have been an expensive IO call as well as not very useful for the user.
So in general, the advantages of using LIMIT would include:
- Enhancing the performance of the web applications.
- Making the applications more user-friendly/readable for customers.
- LIMIT queries are also faster. For example, when LIMIT is used along with ORDER BY, then as soon as the no of records expected is reached, the MySQL engine would stop the sorting (as opposed to full sort without a LIMIT statement).
In this tutorial, we learned about using the MySQL LIMIT clause in the SELECT queries.The LIMIT clause can greatly enhance the database server performance as well as faster and responsive applications by fetching the data it needs rather than fetching the full data sets. The LIMIT clause can also be used with other options like OFFSET where a specified no. of rows is returned starting from a specified offset.